All essays were graded anonymously (by covering the name at the top of the sheet).

Each question was graded separately.

Scores are on the back of each sheet.

The maximal score for each question was 10 points. To receive 10 points an essay did not have to include all the information we discussed on the topic, but it did have to include enough clear and accurate information that someone reading the essay would understand most of the important points we covered.

Most essays received partial credit as a result of including incomplete or inaccurate information.

To determine your total points for this exam, add up the three scores for the three questions. The maximal number of points for this exam is thus a total of 30.   (Check the distribution of grades for this exam.)

Watch your Sakai account for your grade -- coming soon.

The following paragraph restates the guidelines adopted at the start of the semester!

To receive a straight B for the semester, you should earn a total of 90 points (an average of 18 points on each of 5 exams).   To receive a straight C, you should earn a total of 60 points (an average of 12 points on each of 5 exams).   At the end of the semester I also examine everybody's scores and award some extra credit for consistent improvement on exams (especially after the first exam).   The target for a B is subject to adjustment by me at the end of the semester.   The target for a C is engraved in stone!

I have read all the essays twice ... and twice checked my addition of the points for each essay.   University rules require that I keep "final" exams for one semester.   Please email me if you have questions.


1. (12 minutes) Does kin selection influence the evolution of social behavior?

Essays on this topic were usually straightforward.   As usual, good essays included good definitions, explanations of principles, and information about examples.

2. (12 minutes) Does sexual selection influence the evolution of social behavior?


3. (12 minutes) Does group selection influence the evolution of human social behavior?
Agree or disagree with "The Social Conquest of Earth".

Likewise, for the most part.   I had left it to you to propose a definition of group selection based on the definitions we discussed in class for natural, kin, and sexual selection.   A good definition thus began, "Group selection is a difference in the spread of alleles in a population as a result of ... ".   The rest of a good definition included something about groups proliferating at different rates in accordance with alleles associated with the groups.

E. O. Wilson proposed many examples of group selection, with lots of good information, and we discussed some others in class, including a computer simulation.   Essays earned points by discussing these examples from the required reading or from class.

Essays could either agree or disagree with the interpretation of these examples (no points were earned for agreeing or disagreeing, instead points were earned for presenting evidence one way or the other).

Some essays presented other examples (or proposed examples), but no points were earned for discussing examples from outside class or outside the required reading (the sources of information about these outside examples is unknown to me and would also be unknown to other readers).